Can you speak up freely in group meetings and conferences?

It is very tough especially if you are a student, postdoc or junior scientist to speak up at group meetings and conferences. This has been a constant challenge for me throughout my career. Now, I am a mid-career to senior level scientist. But, I still get nervous (sometimes extremely) when I need to stand up... Continue Reading →

Thermohaline Meridional Overturning Circulation on Enceladus

Enceladus is a miniature-size Saturn's moon (Earth's moon is about 7 times larger) known to have a deep ocean (~ 40km) beneath the thick icy crust (~20km). It has been suggested that Enceladus’s interior ocean is heated from below through hydrothermal activity, powered by tidal dissipation. The ocean should in turn carry the heat to... Continue Reading →

Unmanned Seagliders could be used to explore Titan’s sea of liquid methane

Titan is the largest moon of Saturn and receives only about 1% of the amount of solar energy Earth does. Thus, the average surface temperature is extremely low, about 90.6 K (-182.55 °C, or -296.59 °F). Under this extremely cold temperature, Titan's atmosphere is nearly free of water vapor, and is primarily composed of nitrogen and methane. At the... Continue Reading →

10 Best Practices for Inclusive Remote Meetings

Remote meetings have recently become the new normal for sharing information and conducting other important daily work across the scientific enterprise. Many practices needed for productive and inclusive in-person meetings are even more critical for successful remote meetings, which require additional responsibilities of meeting hosts. The AGU Ethics and Equity Center recommends these 10 best... Continue Reading →

Complex organic molecules erupted from the ocean beneath the icy crust of Saturn’s moon, Enceladus

In a recent article published in Nature, NASA scientists analyzed mass spectrometry data from NASA's Cassini spacecraft to find concentrated and complex macromolecular organic material (with molecular masses above 200 atomic mass units) ejected from the ocean beneath the icy crust of Saturn's moon, Enceladus. This new finding suggests that a thin organic-rich film exists on top of the... Continue Reading →

Evidence of a plume on Europa from Galileo magnetic and plasma wave signatures

The icy surface of Jupiter’s moon, Europa, is thought to lie on top of a global ocean. Signatures in some Hubble Space Telescope images have been associated with putative water plumes rising above Europa’s surface, providing support for the ocean theory. However, all telescopic detections reported were made at the limit of sensitivity of the... Continue Reading →

Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) in Europa?

This article appeared in Nature Geoscience in 2014 used a numerical model to hypothesize that a meridional overturning circulation (MOC) exists in the ocean beneath the icy surface of Jupiter's moon Europa. The geothermal heat generated from tidal flexing drives Europa's MOC, which carries heat toward the surface in the low latitudes then poleward. This study... Continue Reading →

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