Ocean storage of anthropogenic CO2 from 1994 to 2007

A paper published in Science estimated the oceanic sink of the anthropogenic CO2 (Cant) over the period of 1994 to 2007 by comparing observations collected from global repeated hydrography cruises between 2003 and 2007 to those from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) program during the 1980s and early 1990s. The... Continue Reading →

Potential breakup of marine stratocumulus clouds under greenhouse warming may speed up ocean warming

Stratocumulus clouds aloft the eastern subtropical Pacific and Atlantic Oceans cool the ocean by shading it from solar radiation. The stratocumulus cloud droplets absorb and emit longwave radiation very efficiently, while downwelling longwave flux above the cloud tops originates from high altitude and thus cooler atmospheric temperatures (becasue the free troposphere above the stratocumulus clouds is dry and has... Continue Reading →

Emergence of a shallow aragonite-undersaturated layer in the Southern Ocean

As the ocean absorbs anthropogenic CO2, its pH and carbonate ion concentration  decrease, thereby decreasing the ratio of the concentration of dissolved carbonate ions in the sea water to the concentration of dissolved ions in a saturated solution of aragonite (i.e., aragonite saturation state ΩAr). If ΩAr falls below the threshold ΩAr=1, ocean acidification makes it harder... Continue Reading →

Why does the upper atmosphere cool with increasing carbon dioxide?

According to model simulations with increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the zonal mean temperature in the atmosphere get warmer in the troposphere (< 10km or > 100hPa) and colder in the stratosphere (10 ~ 50km or 100 ~ 1hPa). A simple explanation is that the amount of infrared heat radiated out to the space... Continue Reading →

Ocean-ice momentum flux reversal and the associated stabilization of the Beaufort Gyre and freshwater accumulation

Driven by the Beaufort High and associated wind-stress curl, the anticyclonic ocean gyre over the Canada Basin, as known as the Beaufort Gyre, is a dominant feature of the Arctic Ocean circulation. The Beaufort Gyre is the largest freshwater reservoir in the Arctic Ocean  (Proshutinsky et al., 2009) and also is a region of the largest summer sea... Continue Reading →

Pantropical inter-ocean interactions & the rising influence of tropical Atlantic Ocean

Conventional view so far has been that El Nino - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is largely responsible for energizing the dominant modes of SST variability  in the tropical Atlantic and Indian Oceans through changes in the Walker circulation and extratropical atmospheric waves. However, recent studies have shown that SST variability in the tropical Atlantic and Indian... Continue Reading →

New ocean observing system reveals a little contribution of the Labrador Sea Water production to the AMOC

A new study published in Science analyzed the first 21-month record of the Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP) observing system, which was launched in the summer of 2014. The OSNAP observing system comprises an integrated coast-to-coast array of two sections: OSNAP West, extending from the southeastern Labrador shelf to the southwestern tip... Continue Reading →

Tropical ocean warming provides optimal growth condition for iron-limited cyanobacterium

Although the cyanobacterium (Trichodesmium) fixes as much as half of the nitrogen (N2) that supports tropical open-ocean ecosystem, its growth is limited by iron (Fe) availability. A study published in Nature Climate Change performed laboratory experiments to show that the optimum growth temperature of Fe-limited Trichodesmium is about 32°C, which is much higher than for Fe-replete cells (about... Continue Reading →

Global meridional overturning circulation revisited

Ocean tracers such as heat, salt and carbon are perpetually carried by the global meridional overturning circulation (GMOC) and redistributed between hemispheres and across ocean basins from their source regions. The GMOC is therefore a crucial component of the global heat, salt and carbon balances. In a new article accepted in Geophysical Research Letter, a... Continue Reading →

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